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INTRODUCTORY  ESSAY.                                  14
erect and scandcnt Bauhinia, Acacia, especially A. Catechu,
Conocarpm, Termmalia, and Nauclea cordifolia are charac-
teristic forms. All of these extend likewise to the Himalaya,
but a few species have their northern limit in the mountains
of Bahar and Bandelkhand, such as Cochlospermum Gossypium,
Chickrassia tabularis, Swietenia febrifuya, Boswellia thurifera,
Hardwickia binata> and Bassia latifolia, which are all more or
less abundantly distributed tliroughout the province. No palm
is indigenous but Phoenix acaulis; for the common Calamus of
Bengal, which extends north to the base of the hills at Mon-
ghir, is not found in the interior.
The flora of the mountain Parasnath, an isolated peak
which scarcely attains a temperate elevation, presents few pe*.
culiar features. The upper part is however more humid than
the base, and plants indicative of a moist climate, such as
parasitical Orchidece, Ferns, AruMi, and others, make their ap-
pearance in small numbers. The temperate forms, Berberis,
Clematis, Tlialictruni, etc., arc all Himalayan species, but most
of them are widely diffused plants, extending also to the penin-
sula. Vernoma diveryens, common near the summit, occurs
also in Bandelkhand, and is equally abundant throughout the
drier hills of the peninsula.
The Son valley in climate and vegetation is identical with
the drier parts of the upper G-angctic valley, or the plains of
Rajwara; and the low Kaimur (Kymorc) range, to the north,
exhibits a continuation of the features of the elevated plat
forms of Bandelkhand.
A part of Bahar was explored by Dr. Buchanan Hamilton,
who made considerable collections in the Monghir and Raj-
mahal hills, and elsewhere among the mountains. Dr. Hooker
also visited parts of it, but not at a favourable season; and a
list of its plants has been published by Dr. McClelland in his
geological report. It is probable that the greatest variety of
form is to be met with in the more eastern hills, which, from
their proximity tp the Bay of Bengal, are more humiJ, and
that to the westward the flora approaches more and more to
that of the drier parts of the peninsula. .            u